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Basic Suspension Terminology

Coil Spring:
Carry the weigth of the car and provides a cushion to absorb road imperfections and return the vehicle to a predetermined ride height.
Have a major influence on the handling of the car, and looks as well.
Progressive or higher spring rates and shorter overall lengths are often used to lower the vehicle’s ride height for enhancing the appearance and improving the handling.
   
"C-rate" a.k.a. "Spring-Stiffness"
The "C" stands "Constant"
It will be expressed in;
- Kilogramms per centimeter = Kg/cm     as well as;
- Newton per millimeter = N/mm

It is about force per stroke.

Example; 50 N/mm = 50 Kg/cm
It says that for every cm you want to compress the spring you need 50Kg.
Would you want to compress this spring 4 cm than you need a force of 200 Kg.
The above is in European Metric system in USA we would use Pounds per Inch.
Multiply metric values by 5.6 and you have a good average in pounds/inch.
Example; 100 N/mm = 560 lbf/in.
   
Shock/Strut/Damper:
Incorporate Damper and Spring, can be part of McPherson ("Strut")
Have a major affect on the feel and behaviour of the car.
They absorb the suspension’s kinetic energy by transforming it into heat by forcing fluid through a series of valves within the shock body.
Control all unwanted suspension motions, and keep the tires in contact with the road; "Road-holding". If engineered the rigth way.
   
Bump Stop / BUmp rubber:
Provide a cushion at the end off the stroke.
They also act as a safety device, avoiding metal to metal contact at full stroke.
They are made of a special urethane compound for maximum absorbtion of unwanted energy.

   
Coil-Over:
Is a type of shockassembly in where the coil-spring is located around the damperbody.
With a wired bush the preload (=rideheigth) is adjustable.
Springs can be swapped for harder or softer ones.


   
Anti-Roll Bar:
Also called "anti-sway bar", is a torsion-bar which connects the front- or the rear-wheels with each other.
The anti-roll bar is used to adjust the balance of the vehicle and limit the amount of sway or body roll especially when cornering.
   
CAMBER
Probabely is the most familiar term of the 3.
Camber is the angle of the wheels,relative to the road, looking at  the car from the front (or rear).
Try to imagine a vertical line through the middle of the wheel
0 degrees camber is when this imaginary line is in square with the road. (black)
Positive camber occurs when the "middle-lines" are in "V-shape" (red line)
Negative camber occurs when the "middle-lines"are in "A-shape" (green line)
 
   
CASTER
Looking to the car from the side;
Imagine/draw an axis-line through the steering-turning-axis of the wheel. Most of the times through the upper and lower ball-joints or through the centreline of the McPherson-strut.
Positive caster occurs when the top of this axis-line tilts towards the rear of the car. (green line),
Negative caster is the opposite (red line)
Positive caster provides the selfcentring-force which makes the car go straight without holding the steering wheel.
 
   
TOE-IN & TOE-OUT
Looking to the car from the top (or bottom) ;
Imagine lines through the middle of the wheels in riding direction.
TOE-IN occurs when these lines are in "A-shape", lines cross in front of the wheels. (red lines)
TOE-OUT occurs when these lines are in "V-shape"; lines cross behind wheels. (green lines)